Recognize the source and chemical properties of indoor ammonia

Ammonia (NH3): In the construction of residential buildings, office buildings, hotels, restaurants, etc. in the northern part of China, it is often artificially added with high alkali-based concrete expansion agent and urea-containing concrete antifreeze and other admixtures in the concrete to prevent The concrete is cracked during construction in winter, which greatly improves the construction progress. These admixtures containing a large amount of ammonia substances are slowly released into the wall by the change of environmental factors such as humidity and temperature in the wall, resulting in a large increase in the concentration of ammonia in the indoor air.

At the same time, the ammonia in the indoor air can also come from interior decoration materials. For example, most of the additives and brighteners used in the decoration of furniture use ammonia water. Ammonia is widely used as a neutralizing agent in shampoo shops and beauty salons during perm.

In addition, with the deepening of the understanding of the destruction of the ozone layer by chlorofluorocarbons, the use of chlorofluorocarbon as a refrigerant has been banned worldwide. The ammonia that had once withdrawn from the dominant refrigerant status, which has been used for a century and a half, was re-used. This is also a potential source of pollution.

The main hazard of ammonia in the indoor environment

According to toxicological classification, ammonia is a low toxic compound. Ammonia is a colorless gas. When the ammonia in the ambient air reaches a certain concentration, it has a strong irritating odor. The human olfactory threshold for ammonia is 0.5 to 1.0 mg/m3. Ammonia is an alkaline substance. It can absorb water in tissues after entering the human body. It has high solubility and has stimulating and corrosive effects on the upper respiratory tract of the human body, which weakens the body's resistance to disease. After ammonia enters the alveoli, it is easy to combine with hemoglobin to destroy the oxygen transport function. Inhalation of a large amount of ammonia in a short period of time may cause tears, sore throat, hoarseness, cough, dizziness, nausea and other symptoms. In severe cases, pulmonary edema or respiratory distress syndrome may occur, and respiratory irritation may occur. The American Society of Manufacturing Chemists stipulates that workers are allowed to work for 8 hours at ammonia concentrations below 100 ppm.

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